Spanish settlers brought the vine to Chile's Central Valley, probably around 1554. The country is famously long and thin, some 3,000 miles in length from the Atacama Desert in the North to the glaciers of Patagonia in the South. The main wine regions of Chile are all valleys of rivers running down from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, transecting the 625 mile Central Valley. With natural boundaries on all sides, Chile is sufficiently isolated to have escaped the late 19th century scourge of phylloxera (root-eating aphids)Chile's wine regions are classified by the various rivers that cut across the Central Valley, carrying torrents of melted snow during the growing season.